In order to measure exposure levels in food, we have been collaborating with the Creme team since 2000. In the first project that we carried out together, a stochastic model for assessing exposure for consumers with a high intake of intense sweeteners was developed and validated. For this assessment, the importance of including the Creme brand loyalty and market share simulation models was demonstrated when we were performing a sensitivity analysis with the programme. 

More recently INRAN, in collaboration with Trinity College Dublin (TCD), used the Creme software to assess exposure in three different types of novel food: a) GM potatoes with modified levels of inherent toxicants, b) conventional rice with a genetically lowered level of phytic acid and c) phytosterol esters. 

Of particular interest was the case study of the GM potatoes with adjusted levels of solanine and chaconine. These two glycoalkaloids were reported to have a complex synergistic interaction. The flexibility of the Creme exposure tool allowed us to model this synergy and assess the concomitant intake of these two substances from the new GM potatoes and the other potato varieties. 

The Creme team have consistently worked on improving the software with the result that we are now happy to use a sophisticated, user-friendly tool for probabilistic exposure assessment of hazardous substances. 

During our long-lasting collaboration with Creme, the team have always demonstrated technical competence and provided rapid feedback in resolving all day to day problems related to the use of the software. Moreover the team have shown that they have the capability of supporting their clients in their efforts to develop new ideas and share their customers' enthusiasm for achieving important goals. 

Davide Arcella, INRAN Italy